Rice is unique among cereal grains in that the entire polished grain is eaten while othercereals are usually processed before they reach the consumer. Grain quality in rice is, therefore, a very sensitive issue. Interests and priorities of different sectors of rice industry are different. Farmers are interested in early maturity and high yield that would give them high returns in the form of good produce and provide enough time for sowing
subsequent crops including wheat. Miller's interest is high head rice recovery. Traders prefer attractive physical appearance (shape and size), whiteness and uniform grain size.
For consumers, quality encompasses a complete range of visual, sensory and palatability criteria that include impressive appearance of raw as well as cooked rice texture in terms of stickiness/flakiness and appealing aroma.
Rice grain quality depends on intrinsic quality of rice variety (appearance, milling quality and cooking characteristics), environmental conditions (temperature, humidity, rainfall) and management practices such as use of healthy seed; optimum sowing time; balanced and timely application of fertilizers; proper harvest and post-harvest operations, use of modern milling and polishing machinery etc.
A) RICE: means milled rice which includes cargo rice, white rice, glutinous rice and boiled rice, whether it be whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken or small broken.
1) Cargo Rice: (BROWN RICE, HUSKED RICE) means rice obtained from paddy of which only the husk has been removed. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
2) Plain or White Rice: means rice obtained from paddy which has been husked and milled while by removing its bran layers. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
3) Parboiled Rice: may be husked or milled rice processed from paddy or husked rice that has been soaked in water and subjected to a heat treatment so that the starch is fully gelatinized, followed by a drying process.
B) GRAIN CLASSIFICATION: means the proportional mixture of rice of difference classes to form a grade
Rice Kernal is divided into four classes namely:
1) Extra Long Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 6.90 mm or more.
2) Long Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 6.0 mm but not more than 6.90 mm.
3) Medium Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 5.0 mm but not more than 5.9 mm.
4) Short Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 5.00 mm or less.
C) YELLOW KERNEL: means the kernel of which 25% or more of the surface area has turned yellow in color.
D) CHALKY KERNEL: means the kernel of which 50% or more of the surface area is white like the color of chalk.
E) GREEN RICE: means the kernel of green color in Cargo (Brown) rice which when broken is also green in color from inside or in the endosperm.
F) BROKEN RICE: Broken of size ¾ length of grain and above shall count as head rice.